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托福语法辅导:复词及真题解题要点

托福考试复词及真题解题要点:副词是TOEEL测试中非常活跃的词类。它与形容词一样,是词类变化题型必考的词性。一般说来,有关副词的题目并不很难。绝大部分考的是副词词性的判断。题型主要有下述几项:(1)副词与形容词混淆(详见本忆要点之[词类变化])(2)否定副词Not 的用法、(3)易混淆的副词。

副词是TOEEL测试中非常活跃的词类。它与形容词一样,是词类变化题型必考的词性。一般说来,有关副词的题目并不很难。绝大部分考的是副词词性的判断。题型主要有下述几项:(1)副词与形容词混淆(详见本忆要点之[词类变化])(2)否定副词Not 的用法、(3)易混淆的副词。

副词常考题型及解题要点

1 副词与形容词的功能区别:形容词修饰名词;副词修饰除名词以外的所有词性及句子成分

[例1] The ordeal of the Cherokee Indians, who were forcible moved from theirhomeland in the 1830*s, is remembered as the *Tears*. (91.10)

[答案] B 修饰动词moved应用副词forcibly。

[例2] Although the United Statesexperienced rapidly growth in the first half of the nincieenth century, it was still predominatelyconcerned with agriculture and forestry. (93.10)

[答案] A 修饰名词growth应用形容词rapid,而不用副词rapidly。 此题是TOEEL常考类型题。请注意以- ly后缀构成的副词通常是命题焦点。

2. 否定词not与形容词no的区别

解题要点: 区分副词not和形容词no的命题是TOEEL常考的题型,主要分布在structure (1-15题)中。当not或no出现在选择答案中,应首先判断它所修饰的中心词的词性以决定选哪一个否定词。

全真例分析

(1) Since Alaska attained statehood in1959------- single party has dominated politics there.

(A) none

(B) no

(C) not

(D) never (94.1)

[答案] B 修饰中心名词party应用形容词no,而非副词not。

(2) ------- social crusade arousedElizabeth Williams enthusiasm more than the expansion of the United States.

(A) No

(B) Nothing

(C) Not

(D) None (91.10)

[答案] 修饰主语名词crusade 应用形容词no. 而非副词not。

(3) ------- all rainwater falling froma cloud reaches the ground, some of it is lost through evaporation.

(A) Nowhere

(B) Not

(C) No

(D) None (91.8)

[答案] B 修饰形容词all应用否定副词not。Not all (不是所有的)是固定短语搭配,表示的是部分否定,not all =sosme。

(4) The mechanism by which brain cellsstore memories is ------- clearly understood.

(A) none

(B) no

(C) not

(D) nor (90.5)

[答案] C 否定系词is,应用副词not。

(5) Not woman held a presidentialcabinet position in the United States until 1933. When Frances Perkins becamesecretary of labor. (89.1)

[答案] A Not 改为No.

3. 辨别词形相近的副词和形容词

hare (努力、副词)- hardly (几乎不、副词)

close (接近、形容词)- closely (接近、副词)

near (接近、形容词)- nearly (几乎、副词)

most (大多数的、形容词)-mostly(主要地、副词)

late (迟、晚、形容词)-lately(最近、副词)

全真例题分析

(1) Chief Joseph Flesche. A vigorousOmaha leader, workedhardly to make his nation a proud and progressive one. (93.1)

[答案] B hardly (几乎不)改为hard(努力)。

(2) Glaciers that develop nearly theNorth and South Poles advance into the sea. Break into pieces, and become icebergs. (90.8)

[答案] B 副词nearly意思是“几乎”。此句应改为near(接近)。

(3) Those electrons most closely tothe nucleus are held electromagnetic force. (92.1)

[答案] B mostclosely 改为most close。


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